Ancient Mesopotamia was the first civilization in the world; each of their achievements paved the way to what we have today in terms of transportation, building materials, and writing.
Their biggest achievements in transportation were the wheel and the sails. The ancient Mesopotamians invented the wheel so that they could transport their materials faster. The sailboat was invented by them since they wanted to cross the oceans so they harnessed the wind.
Their biggest achievement with building materials was the invention of bricks. Since the ancient Mesopotamians did not have any stone and almost no wood they needed a material that was strong yet very, very, inexpensive.
One of their achievements was the invention of pictographs. This enabled the ancient Mesopotamians to carry messages effectively and in real-time and did not allow alternations to the text since it was carved into stone.
These achievements are important to us today because without them we might not have thought of inventing cars, or mail, or even sailboats!