Chemical Oceanography Facts

Chemical Oceanography Facts
  1. Water has many chemical properties. One of these is the ability to dissolve a wide range of substances, from salt to M&Ms. It can do this because of its chemical composition. The positive and negative charges in water can dissolve any ionic compounds, or a substance with positive and negative charges.
  2. A hydrogen bond is a bond between two chemicals which already participate in other chemical bonds. One of the atoms can be hydrogen and the other can be any electronegative atom. It is weaker than other bonds, but is still enough to resist temperature changes.
  3. Adhesion is the property of dissimilar substances sticking together, and cohesion is the property of similar substances sticking together.
  4. Ice is less dense than liquid water because of its chemical structure. Ice has a chemical structure that looks like a hexagon, which makes it less dense and lets it float. This is important for fish because they can still swim under the ice.
  5. When water cycles through the earth, some of it might stay in the soil and not flow back to the sea or stay in lakes. However, when it does either, it can stay there for a long time because it can go to the bottom, where it doesn't get evaporated.
  6. Most sea salts come from erosion, when rivers and rain eroded mountains and stone, eventually carrying the salt to the oceans.
  7. In ocean water, you can find CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), CaSO4·H2O (gypsum), NaCl (sodium chloride or halite), and KCl and MgCl2 (potassium and magnesium salts).
  8. Oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphere, from the photosynthesis of algae, and from the breaking down of organic matter.
  9. Ocean water varies in saltiness, but the average is 34-36 ppt.
  10. With more salt in the water, the density increases because the mass is also greater.
  11. Two ways of removing salt from ocean water are: boiling the water in a pot and letting it evaporate in the sun. These processes are called desalination.
  12. At the surface of the ocean, the water is warm and lit up. As you go deeper, the water becomes colder and darker.